Questions and Answers on Nursing

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1. In medical terminology the prefix (words beginning with) “dermato-” refers to what body part?

The prefix “dermato-” indicates skin in medical terminology. For example, dermatosis and dermatitis are the terms used to describe non-inflammatory skin disorder and skin inflammation respectively.

2. Also in medical terminology, the suffix (words ending with) “-itis” refers to what physiological process?

The suffix “-itis” is used in medical terminology to indicate inflammation. For example, adenitis, colitis, and ileitis denote the inflammatory process in the glands, the colon, and the ileum respectively.

3. In medical terminology the prefix “arthro-” refers to what body parts?

The prefix “arthro-” indicates joints in medical terminology. For example, arthroscopy refers to the technique that is ordinarily used to diagnose and treat joint disorders.

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4. What does the term Laparoscopy mean?

Laparoscopy is the procedure used to examine the abdominal cavity and perform surgical operations when needed (Rothfeld and Romaine 201). A lighted and flexible tube with a tiny video camera, also known as a laparoscope, is a necessary tool for the performance of this procedure. With its help, a doctor can visualize the organs within the abdominal cavity. Four or five small cuts in the abdomen are required to insert the laparoscope and other diagnostic or surgical instruments.

5. What is Liposuction?

Liposuction refers to the cosmetic surgery procedure performed with the aim to remove excess body fat, thereby improving the body’s shape. It helps a person get rid of small areas of fat deposits that do not disappear through a healthy diet and regular exercise. The tummy, hips, and buttocks are the areas of the human body that commonly contain fat deposits. Fat is removed from target sites via the small tubes that a surgeon inserts in the human skin through tiny incisions.

6. A medication prescribed “Q.I.D” is taken by the patient how many times a day?

The abbreviation “Q.I.D” on prescriptions means that a person should take medication four times a day. This abbreviation is derived from the Latin ‘quater in die.’

7. How many bones are in the human body?

The number of bones in the human body changes over time. A newborn has more than 300 bones. However, with growth and development, small bones tend to merge and form larger bones. As a result, an adult has 206 bones that are divided into the axial and appendicular skeletal systems.

8. What is arthritis?

Arthritis is a general term that denotes over 100 rheumatic diseases connected with the inflammation of the human joints and surrounding tissues. Arthritis entails such symptoms as stiffness, joint pain, and swelling. In addition, it results in a person’s inability to perform basic physical activities. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis belong to the most widespread types of this condition.

9. What is Crohn’s disease?

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory disorder that affects the human digestive system (Rothfeld and Romaine 101). However, it most commonly occurs in the small intestine. The causes of this disease have not yet been identified. Doctors suggest that genetics, the immune system, smoking, previous infection, and environmental conditions are the factors responsible for the emergence of Crohn’s disease. The symptoms of the disease are the following: chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. Crohn’s disease is a chronic condition. Therefore, people with this disease may have periods when the symptoms are absent, but later the symptoms may return and become troublesome.

10. In anatomy what is the Vena Cava?

Vena Cava, literally translated from Latin as ‘hollow vein,’ represents the largest vein in the human body (Facts on File 6). The inferior and the superior vena cavae perform unique functions. While the superior vena cava returns blood from the neck, head, and upper limbs to the right side of the heart, the inferior vena cava returns blood from the lower part of the body below the diaphragm to the heart.

11. What is Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

The cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, is a colorless body liquid with the consistency similar to that of water that protects the brain and the spinal cord. In addition, it eliminates wastes from the brain. The ventricles of the brain are responsible for the production of the cerebrospinal fluid. The examination of the fluid helps diagnose a number of the nervous system disorders.

12. In medical law, what is the definition of phrase “scope of practice”?

In medical law, the term “scope of practice” refers to certain activities healthcare providers can perform according to their certification or license. The government is responsible for defining the scope of practice and issuing licenses. The scope of practice defines skills that healthcare providers should possess.

13. Also in medical law, what is the definition of “malpractice”?

In medical law, the term “malpractice” indicates unskilled and improper treatment of a patient by a healthcare professional that is harmful to a patient’s health. Malpractice includes medical negligence that leads to a mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate medication dosage. According to medical malpractice law, a patient can get compensation in a case of sub-standard treatment that has had an adverse impact on a patient’s health.

14. Medicare is a United States health care program that usually provides medical coverage for what type of patient?

Medicare provides medical services for the elderly people who are 65 and older, disabled young people, and the individuals of any age who suffer from end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

15. Medicaid is a health care program controlled by the local state governments in the United States. Medicaid generally provides health coverage for what type of patient?

Medicaid ensures free medical coverage to the individuals and families who have low income and limited resources. In addition, pregnancy status, age, disability status, and citizenship influence Medicaid eligibility.

16. What is the single most effective method of medical asepsis?

Hand washing is the most effective technique of medical asepsis. Proper hand hygiene helps prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. Effective and frequent hand washing removes contamination and reduces the number of germs that can infect patients. Health care personnel should wash hands with antimicrobial soap and running warm water for at least 2 minutes.

17. What is an Otoscope used for?

An otoscope is an effective medical tool used to examine ears and detect ear problems. Its design is quite simple. It consists of a long handle with a magnifying glass and a bright light at one end. An otoscope has a space for a disposable speculum that is inserted into the device, which helps to look inside a patient’s ear. The speculum is a single-use device, whereas only this part of an otoscope has a direct contact with the human ear. It helps ensure a patient’s safety. Moreover, speculums have different sizes, which allows a doctor to choose the most appropriate one for younger and older patients. Doctors often use an otoscope to examine a patient’s throat and nose. In this case, the speculum is not needed. A doctor should be well-trained to use an otoscope properly. Otherwise, the device can damage the human ear.

18. What is an Ophthalmoscope used for?

An ophthalmoscope represents a useful medical tool that doctors ordinarily utilize to examine the inner part of the human eye. With the help of this device, doctors can notice disorders of the lens and retina of the eye. Doctors can hold an ophthalmoscope in their hands. The necessary components of an ophthalmoscope are a light source, mirrors, and lenses that serve to enlarge the image of certain parts of the eye.

19. What is Urinalysis?

A urinalysis represents a laboratory examination of urine that helps identify bacteria, white blood cells, and blood in the sample (Rothfeld and Romaine 336). With the aim to confirm various health disorders, such as kidney and liver problem, diabetes, and urinary tract infection, a urinalysis is performed. This test consists of the chemical, physical, and microscopic urine examinations that help ensure accurate results.

20. E-mycin (Erythromycin) is an antibiotic that is often given to patients that are allergic to what other common antibiotic?

Erythromycin belongs to macrolide antibiotics that are ordinarily prescribed for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This antibiotic is often given to patients who are allergic to penicillin. Erythromycin effectively treats a wide range of acute bacterial infections, such as respiratory, skin, mouth, and urine infections.

21. What is the function of Arteries?

Arteries are the branching blood vessels, the main function of which is to transfer blood reach in oxygen from the heart to the body tissues and organs (Facts on File 6). The aorta, the largest artery in the human body, is attached directly to the heart. It has two branches, known as the coronary arteries, that convey oxygen and nutrients to the heart. The small arteries, or the so-called arterioles, supply capillaries with blood.

22. What is the function to Veins?

Veins, small and elastic blood vessels, serve to carry blood to the heart (Facts on File 6). They return bluish in color, deoxygenated blood from the body tissues to the right chamber of the human heart. Veins form a part of the human circulatory system.

23. What is an EKG?

An electrocardiogram, or EKG, is a medical test that is usually performed in case a patient is suspected to have heart disorders. An EKG allows to examine the electrical activity of the human heart. The results of an examination are shown as a line on a graph paper that a physician is able to interpret in order to make a proper diagnosis. A nurse attaches small electrodes to a patient’s arms, chest, and legs. Thus, a patient is connected to an EKG device via wires. While a nurse records an EKG, a patient should remain motionless and calm. Approximately one minute is enough to make the necessary recording.

24. What is the term for the fluid portion of the blood after coagulation (clotting)?

The term “serum” is used to denote the liquid that is ordinarily separated from the blood after clotting. The composition of serum has a strong resemblance to the composition of plasma. The difference is in coagulation factors of blood that can be found only in plasma. In addition, plasma is more easily separated compared to serum.

25. What are the ABCs of CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)?

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation refers to the technique that helps save a person’s life in various emergencies. Medical personnel, as well as untrained individuals, should know how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The ABC is an order of the steps while performing this technique. Airway, breathing, and chest compressions are the three necessary steps.

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